2nd Amendment

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

Monday, October 29, 2012

New Giveaway

1st Prize is a Slinky Jr. Antenna........
 

2nd Prize Patriots By: James Wesley Rawles
 

There is a 3rd Prize but I will keep it to myself to the Giveaway is over!!!


How to win; Post a comment to this posting and answer this question,  You get inside info on the collapse and you know it will happen in 72 hours, What are the first five things you do 1st? List in the order you would do them and give an over all reason why you would do these things.
Good luck and Thanks for reading........

In a week or so me and the wife will pick the winners..........

Sunday, October 28, 2012

Remember Remember The 6th of November


Vote, because it's your right and a freedom! Stand for freedom and fight the system!!!!!

Baking Soda

USES FOR BAKING SODA

 
 
Baking soda will remove newspaper print stains on kitchen counters.

Use one cup of baking soda and a cup of water in your blender, run, then rinse with hot water to remove stains and food.

Use a little baking soda sprinkled on a wet cloth to remove stains from pots and pans-- except non-stick pans.

If you have a fire on the stove, sprinkle baking soda on the fire to extinguish it.

Clean your gas burners by boiling water, (turn off fire) add a cup of baking soda, drop the clogged burner into this mixture and let soak for about an hour. No more clogged burners.

Get rust stains out of cast iron pans with a thick paste of baking soda and vinegar, rub with your dish cloth, rinse with hot water.

Remove smells from your cutting board by using a thick past of baking soda and water to scrub

Remove black scuff marks from tile floor by using a thin paste of baking soda and water with a soft cloth. If your floors are easily scratched, scrub gently

You can loosen any hairs or feathers from poultry by rubbing it with baking soda, which also helps tenderize the meat.

When canning wild game, add a pinch of baking soda to each jar before sealing to get rid of the wild taste.

If you are baking and need baking powder, but only have baking soda, you can make your own by using 1 tsp each of cream of tarter, baking soda, and cornstarch

Sprinkle a little baking soda on crayon marks on car seats, rub with damp cloth to remove

Soften hardened paint brushes with a qt of hot water, ¼ cup of vinegar and a cup of baking soda. Let sit overnight then rinse well

Loosen tape residue from windows with a thin paste of baking soda.

Sprinkle a little baking soda around cupboards and other areas where you see ants to discourage

If ants like your child’s sandbox, mix a box of baking soda in the sand, use 1 box for every 50 lbs of sand

If your lawn is infected with fleas sprinkle baking soda around your yard. Sprinkle your pets with baking soda once a week to keep fleas away.

To keep roaches out sprinkle baking soda around baseboards, water pipes and around any source of water in your basement.

Keep a large box of baking soda in your workshop to smother fires before losing everything.

When harvesting onions and radishes sprinkle a little baking soda on them to keep the smell from invading your home

Clean your wood deck by sprinkling baking soda and scrub with a wet broom

When you bring home the fishing equipment sprinkle baking soda in your bag, in your net and on your hands to get rid of the fish smell
Washing your greenhouse walls with baking soda and water will keep molds and fungus from growing

If you have an oil spill, sprinkle with baking soda and salt, then sweep

You can sprinkle baking soda around your garden to keep rabbits from eating your lettuce and cabbage without harm to the animals

Sprinkle baking soda on cabbage to keep the slugs and snails away

Keep a box of baking soda in your gun cabinet to keep moisture out of your guns

A great way to get rid of spiders, ants, earwigs, one tbsp of baking soda and one tbsp of icing sugar in a bowl that they can get into. They will eat the sugar mixed with the baking soda, bloat up and not be able to get out of the bowl.

Four points to think of in your survival planning

 

Four points to think of in your survival planning
1) Do not become a obvious target for those who can and will want to hurt you. Either be inconspicuous and stay out of sight, or find a good cover story for what you do, (maybe hiding in plain sight) (such as a hobby like Paint Ball, Civil War or other Reenacting, Camping club, like I am a member of your State's Self Defense Force etc. to draw attention away from your prepping) or be and make it known to potential bad guys that you are strong enough to seriously hurt them so that they are afraid of messing with you.
2) Be aware that a regular well armed military force can destroy any target with its air power and precision guided munitions and heavy weapons, survival against such a foe requires being hidden. A good idea in this event is to copy the Viet Cong and the current Taliban, and go "underground" in hides.
3) Don't ever allow yourself to become a refugee. Always retain control over your destiny. Stake out your turf, make your plans and make sure that you never allow yourself to become panicked into mindless flight or obedience to the whim of a government official.
4) Never give up the ability to or the desire to resist. A very important psychological element in survival and personal and retreat protection is to make sure a "Bad Guy" who messes with you knows that even if he wins he looses. Make sure that a fight with you is a bad idea. That is the best way to ensure that you don't have to fight very often.
 

How to Make Essential Oils

How to Make Essential Oils

http://www.wikihow.com/Make-Essential-Oils

Essential oils are highly concentrated, volatile oils that can be extracted from aromatic plants. Their use dates back to ancient times, and their wide variety of therapeutic, medicinal and culinary uses has ensured their continued popularity. About 700 different kinds of plants contain useful essential oils, and there are several methods employed to extract them, the most common of which is distillation. While essential oils can be very expensive to buy, they are relatively cheap to distill at home. This guide provides basic instructions on how to extract the oils using the relatively simple and effective water-and-steam distillation process.


  1. Obtain or build a still (the apparatus used for distilling). You can purchase one specially designed for distilling essential oils; these generally cost a couple hundred dollars or more, but if you plan on doing a lot of distilling and you're not particularly mechanically inclined, this is probably the way to go. If you want to try building a still, you've got plenty of room for creativity - there are thousands of still designs, and even today, many stills are homemade. The key components of a still are:
    1. The heat source or furnace, which is used to boil the water. Direct fire, a fire built under the retort is the oldest method for heating the still. Today, we can also use gas, such as propane or butane, and electricity. Fuel costs are a major factor when considering a heat source for you distiller;
    2. The holding tank or retort, which holds both the water and, just above the water on a grate or false bottom - picture a vegetable steamer - the plant material to be distilled;
    3. The condenser, which collects the steam and cools it, usually by piping it through a tube immersed in cold water, and...
    4. The separator, which separates the essential oil from the water vapor. The separator, or Essencier, is one of the most important pieces of apparatus a distiller can have. This enables the distiller to separate the essential oils from the distillate in a passive manner.

  2. Harvest your raw material. The quantity of essential oils contained in a plant varies over the course of the plant's development, so it is essential to harvest at the right time. This will depend on the type of plant, so you need to do some research to determine when to harvest. It is also critical to harvest the plants correctly - careless handling, harvesting the wrong parts, even harvesting at the wrong time of day can reduce the quantity and quality of the essential oils. Again, research the plant you wish to distill. If you're buying harvested material, you don't have much control over the harvesting process; look for plants that appear healthy and undamaged, and ask the seller when they were harvested. Generally plants that are in whole form (not crushed or powdered) are best.

  3. Dry the plant material. Drying reduces the amount of oil in each plant, but can greatly increase your yield per batch because you will be able to fit more material into each batch. Drying should be done slowly and NOT in direct sunlight. You can choose not to dry your plant material. Commercially grown plants such as lavender and peppermint may be allowed to dry in the field after cutting for a day or so. The ideal drying method varies from plant to plant, but in general you should not overheat the plants - drying in the shade or even in a dark room minimizes the oil lost - you should not overdry them, and you must not allow the plants to become wet again before distillation. Distill as soon as possible after drying.

  4. Add water to the tank of your still. Use clean water, ideally filtered or distilled and as soft as possible. If you're using a manufactured still, follow the manufacturer's direction. Otherwise, simply make sure you have enough water in the still to complete the distillation; depending on the plant and on the quantity, distillation can take anywhere from a half-hour to six hours or more after the water boils. Be sure that the water level is close to, but not touching, the false bottom that will hold the plant material. If you are performing a hydro-distillation (this is useful for delicate flowers or powdered roots, bark or wood), you will need to have your plant material free floating IN the water.

  5. Add your plant material and pack it tightly in the still. You do not need to chop or cut the plant material, and doing so will cause you to lose some of the oils. The plant material should rest on the false bottom or grate above the water and should touch the sides of the still as little as possible. The layer of plant material can be quite thick as long as it is below the steam outlet (a couple inches below the outlet for a small still, a foot below for a large one).

  6. Close the still and boil the water. Most plants will release their essential oils at 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit, the normal boiling point of water.

  7. Keep an eye on the still. After a while the distillate should begin to come through your condenser and into your separator. The process should be fairly hands-off, but you will want to ensure that you do not run out of water in your still. Depending on the length of the distillation process, you may also need to change the water in the condenser so that the cooling process continues to work. Follow the instructions for the particular plant you are distilling.

  8. Filter the collected oil (optional). Once your distillation is complete you may filter the oil through cheesecloth or similar dry cotton fabric. Ensure that the cloth is dry and clean - detergent residues as well as dirt can contaminate the oil.

  9. Pour the oil into a container for storage. Do this as quickly as possible. Most essential oils can be kept for at least two years, but some have extraordinary shelf lives. To maximize the useful life of your oil, keep it in a dark glass bottle or stainless steel container. Use a clean funnel to pour the oil into the container, and make sure the container is impeccably clean before pouring the oil into it. Store in a cool, dark place.

  10. Decide what to do with the hydrosol. The distillation process produces the essential oil and a hydrosol, the term for the water that has been distilled and which collects in the separator. Some hydrosols are usable themselves - rose water or lavender water, for example. If you do not wish to save the hydrosol you can pour it into the still for the next batch (if you will be distilling another batch immediately) or you can discard it.

  11. You can also place plant material directly into the water. This method is easier, but the quantity and quality of the resulting oil will be reduced. The best distillation method is steam distillation, in which the water is boiled in a separate retort and then pumped into the retort which holds the plant material. This method makes the best quality oil and allows you to control the process better, but it is more complicated (and more expensive) to set up.

  12. Percent yields vary from plant to plant. You will need a lot of plant material to make a little essential oil. You may just decide to make hydrosols. If that is the case a small distiller such as a 5 liter or 10 liter copper distiller will be adequate. If you plan to make essential oils, consider obtaining a larger apparatus. A 40 liter rotating column alembic distiller, for example, will enable you to make up to 5 ounces of essential oil and a large quantity of hydrosols.

  13. Most essential oils are held in the plant's oil glands, veins and hairs, and these are very fragile. If you disturb or break them, you will reduce your yield of oil, so it is essential to handle the plants with care and to handle them as little as possible.

  14. Stainless steel and glass are the best materials for your distillation components. Do not use plastic tubing. Copper pots are traditionally used for the retort, and these work well for a variety of plants, but some plants contain chemicals that react with copper to produce unwanted impurities - heavily tinned copper is suitable in all cases, however. Aluminum can also be used, but not with plants, such as wintergreen and cloves, the oils of which contain phenols.

  15. While distillation removes many impurities, pesticides and herbicides can contaminate your oil. For this reason it is best to use organically grown plants, whether you purchase them or grow your own.

  16. Essential oils are extremely concentrated, and it is often advisable to dilute them in a carrier oil before applying them to skin. The most popular carrier oils are almond oil and grape seed oil, but a variety of different oils can be used. They can be added during the bottling process or mixed with the pure oil just prior to use. The latter is often preferable because you may not want diluted oil for some uses, and carrier oils often have a shorter shelf life than essential oils.

Warnings
  • When drying plant material, exercise care not to allow the material to become contaminated with dirt, dust or other contaminants. Contamination will reduce the quality of your oil and may make it unusable.
  • For the distillation of most flowers, skip the drying process and distill soon after harvesting.
  • Do not distill a batch for too long (check recommendations for the specific plant), as this will add little additional oil but may possibly contaminate your batch with unwanted chemical compounds.
  • Most essential oils should not be ingested, especially if undiluted, and many should be diluted even when applied topically. Also, some essential oils are toxic. See the external links for more information.
  • Organic does not mean that pesticides or fertilizers were not applied to the plant, just different from commonly used synthetic pesticides or fertilizers (which some are less toxic than types of organics). Try to find a local grower who can inform you about how the plant was grown.


Things You'll Need
  • Distillation equipment, including at least a tank or retort, a condenser, a furnace or other heat source and a separator.
  • Glass tubing to connect distillation components
  • Plant materials from which to extract the oils
  • Containers made of dark glass or stainless steel in which to store the oils

100 Best Herbs

100 Best Herbs for Your Health and Wellness

If you’re interested in supplementing your health and wellness routine with some natural remedies, herbs offer a valuable and time-tested way to do so. Whether you want to boost the health of your heart, ease the discomfort of arthritis, or just wake up your mind, this list of 100 herbs and medicinal plants can help you do it. Please keep in mind, however, that not all herbal supplements are appropriate for all people, so check with your doctor to see if you’re in the clear.
Sensory Perception
Give your vision and hearing a boost by taking these herbs.
  1. Ginkgo Biloba: Ginkgo has been attached to many potential benefits, but perhaps one of the most significant is its ability to improve blood flow to the eyes especially in those suffering from macular degeneration. It can also be valuable to your ears as numerous studies have suggested it can help prevent tinnitus and inner ear disturbances as well as a number of other conditions.
  2. Bilberry: A relatively unknown but powerful antioxidant, bilberry has a number of positive health effects for the brain and heart. It can also help to protect the retina and improve range and clarity of vision.
  3. Passionflower: If staring at a computer screen or reading in dim light has your eyes strained, try taking a passionflower supplement. It can help relax the small blood vessels in the eye and make seeing easier.
  4. Goldenseal: Sties and conjunctivitis can be irritating and embarrassing conditions. Take some goldenseal to help reduce the inflammation associated with these conditions and get you on the road to recovery.
  5. Aspalathus: This South African herb contains a number of antioxidants that are similar to those found in Bilberry. These can boost your eye health while giving you overall improved immune function.
  6. Mahonia Grape Extract: The sun can have an immensely damaging effect on the eyes, but this herb can help reduce the impact of sun damage while strengthening the retina, slowing eye aging and maintaining better overall eye health.
  7. Bilwa: Found in the sub-Himlayan forests, this fruit has been used in India to help treat painful eye conditions like sties and conjunctivitis.
  8. Mullein flower: This flowering plant can be a natural way to help rid yourself of an ear infection as it acts as a natural bactericide when condensed to oil form.
Mental Health and Function
Keep your mind sharp, alert and in good health with a little help from these plants.
  1. Kava kava: This herb can help calm your anxieties by binding to brain receptors that promote relaxation.
  2. St. John’s Wort: Those with mild to moderate depression may find some relief with this herb. Numerous studies have been done on it, most finding that it can be as effective as some prescription drugs at treating depression. Those with more severe depression should, of course, consult a medical professional.
  3. Valerian: Lull your body into a restful sleep with a natural remedy instead of prescription pills. Valerian has been shown to be as effective as traditional sleeping pills, while eliminating some of the more harmful side effects associated with them.
  4. Bacopa: Used in India for several thousand years, this flowering plant has been said to improve memory, learning and cognition. Studies have shown that it can do little to improve your old memories but does have an affect on newly acquired information, so start taking it sooner rather than later.
  5. Ginseng: Many people have heard of the herb ginseng, but few know that there have been numerous studies done to document its effects. These studies seem to suggest that there can be some benefits of taking it that include improved memory and other mental performance and a whole host of other effects ranging from immune system stimulation to lowered cholesterol.
  6. Holy Basil: Also known as tulsi, this herb is not usually used in cooking like its cousin, but instead can help reduce the effects of stress on the body by inhibiting cortisol.
  7. Chamomile: Generally known as a relaxing herb, chamomile tea can be a great way to wind down after a stressful day and ease stress. Some also use it to calm nerves or relieve menstrual cramps.
  8. Suma: This rainforest plant can in some people help to normalize body systems and reduce the effects of stress.
  9. Brahmi: Give this Indian remedy a try to help boost your brain function and information retention.
  10. Gotu Kola: Commonly used in India, this herb can help to improve cognitive function and reduce anxiety, helping you think more clearly and calmly.
  11. Sage: Modern research has shown that sage can actually help make you wiser, improving memory and reducing inflammation.
  12. Kudzu: Feel like you’d like to have better self control when it comes to drinking and killing all those brain cells? This herb can help you to curb your appetite for booze by helping alcohol more quickly get to the part of the brain that tells you enough is enough.
  13. Catnip: Not just for cats, this common herb when eaten can help reduce anxiety and produce an overall sedated effect.
Digestive and Urinary Systems
Use these herbs to ensure that your plumbing stays in good condition.
  1. Licorice: You may love the taste of licorice but might not have known about the beneficial health effects it can have. It can soothe and relax gastrointestinal tissues, helping ease the pain of ulcers and acid reflux and has even been shown to help increase bile production.
  2. Milk Thistle: Give your liver some help filtering out all those toxins by taking some milk thistle. It can help improve the regeneration of liver tissue and regulate liver function as demonstrated in testing done at radiology tech schools nationwide.
  3. Peppermint Oil: A little dab of peppermint oil will do you to help relax the smooth muscles of your colon, stopping cramps and constipation that can be common symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.
  4. Ginger: An upset stomach is never fun to deal with, but ginger may be the solution that you’re looking for. Ginger helps slow the production of serotonin, a major factor in the nauseated feeling you get when you are motion sick or experiencing pregnancy sickness.
  5. Senna: If you’re feeling constipated, this herb may work well as a natural laxative to get things moving again.
  6. Gentian: This super bitter herb has been used for generations to treat digestive problems. Its bitter tastes stimulates the digestive system, making it easier to get food through your system problem free.
  7. Uva Ursi: Try out this herb for a great natural way to help prevent getting bladder infections.
  8. Aloe: While great for healing burns and skin irritation when applied topically, this plant can act as a helpful laxative when consumed.
  9. Gamma Orizanol: Give this remedy a try if you want to help calm an upset stomach.
  10. Rose Hips: These small berries serve a dual purpose helping to reduce bladder infections and to fight constipation.
  11. Agrimony: If your whole digestive system needs a lift, try out this herb, said to improve stomach, liver, kidney and gallbladder function.
  12. Anise: This licorice-flavored herb can help prevent the accumulation of painful gas in the stomach and intestines.
  13. Celery Seed: Those having a little difficulty urinating may want to try this natural remedy out, cited for its diuretic properties.
Physical Appearance
Help yourself look good at any age with these powerful herbs.
  1. Burnet: The leaves of this plant have been used for thousands of years in China, and can help treat several skin conditions as well as reducing the inflammation of hemorrhoids and helping heal burns.
  2. Burdock: Used all over the world, this substance helps combat hair loss, treats dandruff, and helps skin problems.
  3. Calendula: Great for all around skin care, this herb can treat everything from acne to chapped lips.
  4. Comfrey: Use the leaves and roots of this plant to soothe skin irritations and promote connective cell growth.
  5. Plantain leaf: Because it has many soothing elements, this plant is one of the best remedies for cuts, skin infections, and chronic skin problems.
  6. Red Clover: If you’ve tried everything to get rid of your acne, why not give this natural acne and skin clearingremedy a try?
  7. Sassafras Leaf: Said to purify and cleanse the body, this plant can be a helpful tool in getting acne under control.
  8. Solomon’s Seal Root: Make a wash out of this plant to help control skin problems and blemishes.
  9. Spikenard: Acne, pimples, blackheads, and rashes don’t stand a chance against this inflammation fighting herb.
Heart and Circulatory System
Give your heart and the blood throughout your body some healthy help with these herbs.
  1. Garlic: Garlic is a powerhouse when it comes to heart health. Regular usage has been shown to prevent cardiovascular disease and lower high blood pressure. In addition, studies suggest that it might help prevent cancer, kill bacteria, and even improve levels of t-cells in AIDS patients.
  2. Hawthorn: The berries of this flowering shrub are great for the heart, by helping to open up the coronary arteries, lowering blood pressure, or slowing a rapid heart rate. Users will see the best effects after six months or more of taking the supplement.
  3. Guggul: Guggul is thought to bind to cholesterol in your gut so that you eliminate it before it enters your bloodstream, helping reduce your overall cholesterol and feel better.
  4. Horse chestnut: Help prevent those unsightly varicose veins by taking some horse chestnut. Aescin and other compounds in the herb can help bulk up weak capillaries and veins, making them less prone to swelling and pain.
  5. Cinnamon: If you’re worried about the health of your circulatory system, consider adding a little cinnamon to your diet. Cinnamon has been shown to reduce blood sugar and help lower cholesterol.
  6. Dandelion: Dandelions are more than just an annoying weed, they can also be an effective way to help control high blood pressure. Researchers think it works like many prescription medicines, decreasing your blood volume and thereby your blood pressure.
  7. Angelica root: Traditional wisdom places this herb as a great heart strengthener, especially for those suffering from heart related conditions.
  8. Coriander: The seeds of the cilantro plant can help build and strengthen your circulatory system and make for a stronger, healthier heart.
  9. Cayenne: Containing capsicum, cayenne can help normalize blood pressure, increase the elasticity of blood vessels, and even slow bleeding.
  10. Motherwort: This plant has a long history of use and contains the alkaloid leonurine which can have a relaxing effect on smooth muscles like those found in the heart.
  11. Gynostemma: This herb has been shown in laboratory studies to have a direct effect on the circulatory system, strengthening the heart and helping wounds heal more quickly.
Pain and Inflammation
Don’t suffer through pain and inflammation, try these remedies instead.
  1. Arnica: The yellow flowers of this plant provide powerful anti-inflammatory properties. Apply it to the skin to help reduce the pain and swelling of bruises, strains and sprains.
  2. Feverfew: Several studies have confirmed that feverfew can help prevent and treat migraines. It works by reducing the amount of serotonin in the body and relaxing constricted blood vessels in the head.
  3. Willow Bark: A component of traditional aspirins, willow bark can be a wonderful way to naturally reduce minor aches and pains.
  4. Devil’s Claw: Native to southern Africa, this long-used remedy can be a helpful agent in reducing inflammation as well as back and neck pain.
  5. Chinese Skullcap: Part of the mint family, this herb can help reduce stress headaches, the effects of PMS and even insomnia.
  6. Marjoram: Great for general aches and pains, this common herb can be even more effective when combined with chamomile or gentian.
  7. Thyme: Many use thyme in their cooking without being aware that it can help fight infection, reduce the pain of migraines and help clear out the lungs.
  8. Meadowsweet: Meadowsweet contains many of the chemicals used to make aspirin in its roots and when chewed can prove a helpful remedy for headaches.
  9. Cat’s Claw: While few definitive studies have been done, many believe this herb can reduce general inflammation and boost the immune system.
  10. Wood Betony: This attractive woodland plant does more than just look pretty, it can also be used to reduce the pain associated with headaches.
  11. Witch Hazel: Those suffering from hemorrhoids especially will appreciate the anti-inflammatory properties of this herb.
Illness Prevention and Treatment
Check out these herbs and plants to help keep you in general good health.
  1. Ephedra: One of the oldest cultivated medicinal herbs, Ephedra is most commonly used to help treat and prevent colds. It works by dilating the bronchial tubes through the release of adrenaline to be especially useful to those suffering from allergies and asthma. Long term usage can be harmful, however, so take it with care.
  2. Echinacea: Give your immune system a boost by taking some echinacea. It activates the body’s natural defense mechanism, white blood cells, and helps your body prevent and fight off harmful infections and bacteria.
  3. Astragalus: The Chinese have known about and used this herb for thousands of years for a variety of different ailments. Recent studies have shown that it may have a very real effect on the immune system, increasing immune activity and effectiveness.
  4. Elderberry: Keep the flu at bay by chomping down on this berry. Rich in vitamins A and C, it’s been shown to prevent the flu virus from spreading to healthy cells and cuts recovery time in half.
  5. Andrographis: Help keep your colds short and sweet by taking a little bit of this herb. Studies have shown it can help reduce symptoms like fatigue, sleeplessness, sore throat, and runny nose up to 90%.
  6. Kelp: Kelp is very high in iodine which is a natural infection fighter. As a bonus, it contains substances that are beneficial to hair and nails.
  7. Yarrow: While too much yarrow can be quite dangerous, a careful amount can be a great assistor in breaking a fever and fighting off a cold or flu.
  8. Boneset: An infusion of this herb can help you to more quickly fight off a cold.
  9. Elder: When you feel a cold or the flu coming on, enjoy some herbal tea made from this plant. If you are growing it at home, never eat the green parts of the plant as they are poisonous.
  10. Pleuresy root: Sometimes also called butterfly weed or Indian paintbrush, this variety of milkweed can help you get more out of your coughs when you have a cold or soothes some of the inflammation as well.
  11. Pau d’arco: This Brazilian herb is thought to be an all around booster to your immune system.
  12. Maitake: Check out this mushroom, common in asian medical practice for a jump start for your immune system as well as for help with blood pressure and cholesterol.
  13. Horehound: Sore throats and coughs can be remedied by making a tea of the leaves of this plant.
Diseases and Conditions
While not cure-alls, these herbs and plants can help reduce the symptoms and severity of a variety of medical conditions.
  1. Khella: Check out this Middle Eastern herb for a little help on preventing those asthma attacks before they start. It dilates your bronchial tubes and relaxes the muscles that spasm during an attack, helping keep you breathing easy.
  2. Gymnema: Help reduce the effects of your diabetes symptoms by stimulating your pancreas to pump out more insulin with this herb. Used for thousands of years, recent preliminary studies have shown that it can have a big impact on reducing blood sugar.
  3. Eyebright: Don’t let hay fever leave you knocked out with red eyes and a runny nose. This herb can help make your immune system less reactive to airborne allergens, making your life a little easier during allergy season.
  4. Lemon Balm: While there is no cure for herpes, there are ways that you can help make it a little more bearable, both in it’s genital and cold sore forms. Lemon balm can help reduce itching, swelling, and tingling while speeding up healing.
  5. Rosemary: While rosemary itself may not have any proven medical benefits, the application of it to other foods can. Studies have shown that rosemary helps prevent the formation of carcinogens caused by grilling foods.
  6. Wild Cherry: Wild cherry isn’t just a soda flavoring, it can also help with asthma by loosening phlegm in the chest and throat and reduce inflammation of tissues.
  7. Fenugreek seed: Try this multipurpose remedy for help with allergies, coughs, headaches and sore throat.
  8. Forsythia: If you fear you may have picked up lyme disease, this flowering scrub may offer you some help by providing antibacterial properties to weaken the disease.
  9. Boswellia: This herb relieves symptoms of both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and can even work well for those who reacted negatively to other natural treatments.
  10. Turmeric: Those suffering from painful joints due to arthritis may be well advised to add a little turmeric into their diets. This spice, used in curry, contains curcumin, a powerful anti-inflammatory substance which can help reduce the pain and swelling.
  11. Yucca Root: Yucca root reduces inflammation of the joints, making it a valuable remedy for arthritis.
  12. Nettle: Extracts of this plant have been used to treat conditions like arthritis, anemia and hay fever.
Reproductive Health
Ensure that your reproductive organs are in good health with these herbal remedies.
  1. Sea Buckthorn: Women suffering from vaginal dryness may find a natural cure in this remedy. It contains palmitoleic acid which helps hydrate mucus membranes and keeps skin moisturized.
  2. Black Cohosh: Make menopause easier by checking out this herb, used by some Native American groups. It contains plant estrogens which can help regulate and balance your rapidly changing hormones.
  3. Chaste Berry: The small, peppery-tasting berries of this plant can offer some help to women coming off birth control or those who just need a little assistance in regulating their hormones and menstrual cycles.
  4. Dandelion: If you suffer from a large amount of fluid retention around your time of the month, consider taking dandelion. It has natural diuretic properties that help eliminate excess fluids.
  5. Dong Quai: This plant has estrogenic properties making it a good choice for women who want to balance their hormones and ease common PMS symptoms. Be advised that it can take up to a year to see results from taking it.
  6. Raspberry Leaf: Pregnant women should check with their doctors before taking this herb, but it’s generally considered safe and can help ease the painful process of labor.
  7. Saw Palmetto: Get some help keeping your prostate in good health with this herb. It reduces the symptoms of an enlarged prostate, in some cases as much as a prescription medication, though it may not work for every man.
  8. Daminana Leaf: This multipurpose herb can help deal with sexual dysfunction issues in both men and women as well as helping to reduce hot flashes associated with menopause.
  9. Sarsaparilla: With effects similar to the male hormone testosterone, this herb can be a great way to stimulate the sex drive in both men and women.
  10. Beth Root: Some have seen balancing effects on the hormones with this herbal tincture, leading to normalized menstrual bleeding, reduced effects of menopause and easier pregnancy.

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Emergency Duct Tape Field Stretcher

 

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There is always room for design improvement with any DIY project. This duct tape stretcher won't win a beauty contest, but it's dang sure strong and competent enough to get your injured buddy where they need to go.

This emergency stretcher is just this: for use in an emergency. Always use caution in transporting an injured person.

Step 1Getting started

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Tools:

Duct tape
Sharp knife (if you value your teeth or your dentures)
2 Poles- 5' Long (or longer) and STURDY!

I used 2 push-broom poles, but in the field you'd be improvising with tree branches, driftwood, old fence posts, etc. If you're using small trees or tree branches, strip the bark as needed and clean the poles as best you can. Work quickly but don't cut yourself. Green wood poles will work, but the drier the poles, the better the duct tape will adhere to it.

Always test dry poles or branches against your knee. If they don't snap, they're good.

Barter Items 16 Things To Have

16 THINGS TO STOCKPILE WITH BARTER VALUE

Cigarettes. I hate smoking, and can’t stand being around anyone that smokes. Having said that, I recognize that in a SHTF situation many others will be cut off from their access to cigarettes, so there is plenty of barter potential.

Soap. Bars of soap, and even those little cleaning napkins/wipes that you get at the BBQ restaurants could be very valuable ...
in a SHTF scenario. Ever see “The Book of Eli?”

Bullets. Obviously, it’s a good idea to have a decent store of ammo representing all calibers of the weapons you own. However, it is also a good idea to store extra ammo in common calibers (9mm, .22, .38, 12-guage shells, etc.) as a potential barter. After all, a gun without ammo is just an inacurate throwing object.

Alcohol. Alcohol could serve a variety of purposes in a SHTF situation. It is valuable as a potential bartering commodity, and it also has medicinal uses. Did you know Vodka is a great home remedy to counteract the reaction to poison ivy?

MREs. More portable and easier to barter than larger 5-gallon buckets, or even #10 cans of dried foods, MREs are great to have on hand for bartering. Keep a variety of flavors and different kinds of foods because you could be holding something that could complete a meal for a hungry person.

Silver Coins. Keep in mind this doesn’t necessarily mean only silver dollars with a full ounce of silver, but even older, less expensive coins with a high silver component (the 1964 Kennedy half-dollar, for example).

Detergent. Don’t think people are interested in bartering detergent? Check out the story about the recent rash of detergent thefts across the country. Apparently, Tide detergent on the black market is now referred to as “liquid gold.” Interesting.

Water bottles. To someone in bad need of water, a water bottle could be worth its weight in gold. Remember the rule of threes: you can live three minutes without air, three days without water, and three weeks without food. Store accordingly.

Matches and lighters. A box of matches is relatively inexpensive, but for someone needing to build a fire a pack of matches or a lighter could be very valuable. Be sure these are stored safely, and if they are not waterproof make them so by storing in a watertight container.

Sugar. My grandfather used to tell stories of things that were in limited supply in the Great Depression. Sugar was something he often mentioned. Imagine how easily you could win over a sweet-tooth with the promise of a bag of sugar in exchange for something you are short on.

Toilet paper. This one is rather self-explanatory, isn’t it? Sure, there are substitutes for Charmin, but who wants to keep using leaves when paper feels so much better.

Water Filters/Purifiers. Water purification drops and filters could mean the difference in offering family members treated water or potentially harmful, bacteria-infested water. Who’d be willing to trade for that?

Bleach. May be used to disinfect water, or keep living quarters and soiled clothing sanitized.

Batteries. Can be used to power up flashlights, radios, and other electronic devices.

Candles. Emergency candles would be a great barter item for those in need of providing some light to their living quarters without electricity.
 
 

Saturday, October 20, 2012

55 Facts About The Debt And U.S. Government Finances That Every American Voter Should Know


The Economic Collapse
Oct 19, 2012
The future of the United States of America is being systematically destroyed by our politicians, but unfortunately most Americans don’t really grasp exactly what is happening. 30 years ago, our national debt had just crossed the one trillion dollar mark. Just recently, it crossed the 16 trillion dollar mark. Prior to every election, politicians from both parties swear up and down that they will do something about our exploding debt, but it never happens. Once again this year, our politicians are making all kinds of grand promises about getting U.S. government finances under control. But they are also promising all kinds of new plans and programs which are going to cost a lot more money on top of what we are already spending. For the average American, all of this can be incredibly confusing. That is why I have put together a list of facts about the debt and U.S. government finances below. These are things that every voter should know. The federal government is stealing more than a trillion dollars a year from our children and our grandchildren, and they are spending that money in some of the most foolish ways that you could ever imagine. We have accumulated the largest mountain of debt in the history of the world, but our politicians just can’t help themselves – they appear to be absolutely addicted to spending money. If we continue on the path that we are currently on, our entire financial system and our entire economy will be destroyed by all of this debt. Time is running out and urgent action is needed to address this crisis.
Many of our founding fathers attempted to warn us about the dangers of government debt. For example, Thomas Jefferson once said the following
I wish it were possible to obtain a single amendment to our Constitution. I would be willing to depend on that alone for the reduction of the administration of our government to the genuine principles of its Constitution; I mean an additional article, taking from the federal government the power of borrowing.
Where would we be today if such an amendment had been added to our Constitution?
How much brighter would our future be if the federal government had been forced to only spend what it took in all these years?
Those are very good questions.
The following are 55 facts about the debt and U.S. government finances that every American voter should know….
#1 While Barack Obama has been president, the U.S. government has spent about 11 dollars for every 7 dollars of revenue that it has actually brought in.
#2 During the fiscal year that just ended, the U.S. government took in 2.449 trillion dollars but it spent 3.538 trillion dollars.
#3 During fiscal year 2011, over a trillion dollars of government money was spent on 83 different welfare programs, and those numbers do not even include Social Security or Medicare.
#4 Over the past four years, welfare spending has increased by 32 percent. In inflation-adjusted dollars, spending on those programs has risen by 378 percent over the past 30 years. At this point, more than 100 million Americans are enrolled in at least one welfare program run by the federal government. Once again, these figures do not even include Social Security or Medicare.
#5 Over the past year, the number of Americans getting a free cell phone from the federal government has grown by 43 percent. Now more than 16 million Americans are enjoying what has come to be known as an “Obamaphone”.
#6 When Barack Obama first entered the White House, about 32 million Americans were on food stamps. Now,nearly 47 million Americans are on food stamps. And this has happened during what Obama refers to as “an economic recovery”.
#7 The U.S. government recently spent 27 million dollars on pottery classes in Morocco.
#8 The U.S. Department of Agriculture recently spent $300,000 to encourage Americans to eat caviar at a time when more families than ever are having a really hard time just trying to put any food on the table at all.
#9 During 2012, the National Science Foundation spent $516,000 to support the creation of a video game called “Prom Week”, which apparently simulates “all the social interactions of the event.
#10 The U.S. Department of Agriculture gave the largest snack food maker in the world (PepsiCo Inc.) a total of 1.3 million dollars in corporate welfare that was used to help build “a Greek yogurt factory in New York.
#11 The National Science Foundation recently gave researchers at Purdue University $350,000. They used part of that money to help fund a study that discovered that if golfers imagine that a hole is bigger it will help them with their putting.
#12 If you can believe it, $10,000 from the federal government was actually used to purchase talking urinal cakes up in Michigan.
#13 The National Science Foundation recently gave a whopping $697,177 to a New York City-based theater company to produce a musical about climate change.
#14 The National Institutes of Health recently gave $666,905 to a group of researchers that is studying the benefits of watching reruns on television.
#15 The National Science Foundation has given 1.2 million dollars to a team of “scientists” that is spending part of that money on a study that is seeking to determine whether elderly Americans would benefit from playing World of Warcraft or not.
#16 The National Institutes of Health recently gave $548,731 to a team of researchers that concluded that those that drink heavily in their thirties also tend to feel more immature.
#17 The National Science Foundation recently spent $30,000 on a study to determine if “gaydar” actually exists. This is the conclusion that the researchers reached at the end of the study….
“Gaydar is indeed real and… its accuracy is driven by sensitivity to individual facial features”
#18 Back in 2011, the National Institutes of Health spent $592,527 on a study that sought to figure out once and for all why chimpanzees throw poop.
#19 The U.S. government spends more on the military than China, Russia, Japan, India, and the rest of NATOcombined. In fact, the United States accounts for 41.0% of all military spending on the planet. China is next with only 8.2%.
#20 In a previous article, I noted that close to 500,000 federal employees now make at least $100,000 a year.
#21 In 2006, only 12 percent of all federal workers made $100,000 or more per year. Now, approximately 22 percent of all federal workers do.
#22 If you can believe it, there are 77,000 federal workers that make more than the governors of their own states do.
#23 During 2010, the average federal employee in the Washington D.C. area received total compensation worth more than $126,000.
#24 The U.S. Department of Defense had just nine civilians earning $170,000 or more back in 2005. When Barack Obama became president, the U.S. Department of Defense had 214 civilians earning $170,000 or more. By June 2010, the U.S. Department of Defense had 994 civilians earning $170,000 or more.
#25 During 2010, compensation for federal employees came to a grand total of approximately 447 billion dollars.
#26 If you can believe it, close to 15,000 retired federal employees are currently collecting federal pensions for life worth at least $100,000 annually. That list includes such names as Newt Gingrich, Bob Dole, Trent Lott, Dick Gephardt and Dick Cheney.
#27 During 2010, the federal government spent $33,387 on the hair care needs of U.S. Senators.
#28 During 2010, U.S. Senators pulled $72,370 out of the “Senate Restaurant Fund”.
#29 During 2010, an average of $4,005,900 of U.S. taxpayer money was spent on “personal” and “office” expenses per Senator.
#30 In 2013, 3.7 million dollars will be spent to support the lavish lifestyles of former presidents such as George W. Bush and Bill Clinton.
#31 During 2011, the federal government spent a total of 1.4 BILLION dollars just on the Obamas.
#32 When you combine all federal government spending, all state government spending and all local government spending, it comes to approximately 41 percent of U.S. GDP. But don’t worry, all of our politicians insist that this is not socialism.
#33 As I have written about previously, less than 30 percent of all Americans lived in a home where at least one person received financial assistance from the federal government back in 1983. Today, that number is sitting at an all-time high of 49 percent.
#34 Back in 1990, the federal government accounted for just 32 percent of all health care spending in America. This year, it is being projected that the federal government will account for more than 50 percent of all health care spending in the United States.
#35 The number of Americans on Medicaid soared from 34 million in 2000 to 54 million in 2011, and it is being projected that Obamacare will add 16 million more Americans to the Medicaid rolls.
#36 In one of my previous articles, I discussed how it is being projected that the number of Americans on Medicare will grow from 50.7 million in 2012 to 73.2 million in 2025.
#37 If you can believe it, Medicare is facing unfunded liabilities of more than 38 trillion dollars over the next 75 years. That comes to approximately $328,404 for each and every household in the United States.
#38 In the United States today, more than 61 million Americans receive some form of Social Security benefits. By 2035, that number is projected to soar to a whopping 91 million.
#39 Overall, the Social Security system is facing a 134 trillion dollar shortfall over the next 75 years.
#40 When Barack Obama first took office, the U.S. national debt was about 10.6 trillion dollars. Now it is about 16.2 trillion dollars. That is an increase of 5.6 trillion dollars in less than 4 years.
#41 The federal government has now run a budget deficit of more than a trillion dollars for four years in a row.
#42 If right this moment you went out and started spending one dollar every single second, it would take you more than 31,000 years to spend one trillion dollars.
#43 If you were alive when Jesus Christ was born and you spent one million dollars every single day since that point, you still would not have spent one trillion dollars by now.
#44 Some suggest that “taxing the rich” is the answer. Well, if Bill Gates gave every single penny of his entire fortune to the U.S. government, it would only cover the U.S. budget deficit for 15 days.
#45 If the federal government used GAAP accounting standards like publicly traded corporations do, the real federal budget deficit for 2011 would have been 5 trillion dollars instead of 1.3 trillion dollars.
#46 The United States already has more government debt per capita than Greece, Portugal, Italy, Ireland or Spain does.
#47 At this point, the United States government is responsible for more than a third of all the government debt in the entire world.
#48 The amount of U.S. government debt held by foreigners is about 5 times larger than it was just a decade ago.
#49 Between 2007 and 2010, U.S. GDP grew by only 4.26%, but the U.S. national debt soared by 61% during that same time period.
#50 The U.S. national debt is now more than 37 times larger than it was when Richard Nixon took us off the gold standard.
#51 The U.S. national debt is now more than 5000 times larger than it was when the Federal Reserve was first created.
#52 The U.S. national debt jumped more on the very first day of fiscal year 2013 than it did from 1776 to 1941 combined.
#53 Historically, the interest rate on 10 year U.S. Treasuries has averaged 6.68 percent. If the average interest rate on U.S. government debt rose to that level today, the U.S. government would find itself spending more than a trillion dollars per year just on interest on the national debt.
#54 A recently revised IMF policy paper entitled “An Analysis of U.S. Fiscal and Generational Imbalances: Who Will Pay and How?” projects that U.S. government debt will rise to about 400 percent of GDP by the year 2050.
#55 Boston University economist Laurence Kotlikoff is warning that the U.S. government is facing a gigantic tsunami of unfunded liabilities in the coming years that we are counting on our children and our grandchildren to pay. Kotlikoff speaks of a “fiscal gap” which he defines as “the present value difference between projected future spending and revenue”. His calculations have led him to the conclusion that the federal government is facing a fiscal gap of 222 trillion dollars in the years ahead.
Please share this article with as many people as you can. Time is running out to fix these problems.

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Winter Prepping

WINTER PREPPING

ONE ISSUE TO PREP FOR NOW, IS WINTER:

* WINTERIZE YOUR HOME. INSULATE YOUR PIPES AND YOUR HOME, AND YOUR WATER SOURCES. CLEAN AND SEAL AND REPAIR YOUR CHIMNEY PIPES AND FLUES. INSURE YOUR HVAC VENTS AND SYSTEM'S ARE CLEAN IN GOOD REPAIR.

* WINTERIZE YOUR VEHICLE,GET SNOW TIRES AND NEW CHAINS.

* STORE UP AT LEAST 30 DAYS OF FOOD THAT YOU DO NOT HAVE TO COOK.

* GET AT LEAST 5 CORDS OF WOOD PLUS WHAT YOU NORMALLY USE FOR YOUR WINTER USE, IF YOU HAVE A WOOD BURNING STOVE.

* TOP OFF YOUR PROPANE TANKS, THE BIG ONE AND THE SMALL ONES.

* GO THROUGH YOUR WINTER CLOTHES, MAKE SURE THAT THEY ARE IN GOOD REPAIR, BUY EXTRA WOOL SOCKS AND WINTER UNDERWEAR IF NEEDED.

* GET YOUR ROOT CELLAR CLEANED OUT AND STOCKED.

* GET YOUR SOUP AND STEW RECIPES OUT AND READY TO USE.

* STOCK YOUR FREEZERS WITH GAME AND EXTRA MEAT.

* INSURE THAT YOUR ROOF IS REPAIRED.

* GET A SMALL SNOW BLOWER, AND SNOW SHOVELS.

* STOCK UP ON EXTRA FOOD FOR YOUR ANIMALS.

* TENT YOUR GARDENS WITH PLASTIC SHEETING.

* WINTERIZE YOUR GREENHOUSE.

* WINTERIZE YOUR ANIMAL SHEDS, PENS, COOPS, ETC. INSULATE AND GET A SAFE HEATING SYSTEM IN PLACE IF YOU LIVE IN AREA'S WHERE SUPER COLD WEATHER IS A FACTOR.

* BUY EXTRA WOOL BLANKETS

* GET YOUR BOARD GAMES OUT AND READY FOR USE.

* HAVE LEAST $1000.00 EMERGENCY CASH ON HAND.

* GET OUT YOUR EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS.

* STOCK UP ON AT LEAST 30 DAYS OF NEEDED MEDICATIONS ON HAND.

* RESTOCK YOUR FIRST - AID KITS AND EMERGENCY KITS.

* TRIM THE TREE'S AROUND YOUR HOME FOR ANY OVER HANGING BRANCHES THAT CAN FREEZE AND FALL ON YOUR HOME OR PERSONS AROUND OR IN YOUR HOME.


 

26 Item Debt Collapse Checklist

http://www.naturalnews.com/037577_debt_collapse_checklist_preparedness.html

Monday, October 15, 2012

Great Info From a Good Blog

 

Found at: http://livingprepared.blogspot.com/

He has a great blog go check it out, and this is good info!

Sunday, October 14, 2012


Refilling 1 lb. Propane Cylinders


1 lb. propane cylinders are very handy and great at powering camping stoves and camping lanterns. In times of emergency these two appliances can be life savers and very comforting. The camp stove can cook your meals as well as sterilize drinking water and at night the propane lantern is hard to beat with a single mantle lantern putting out nearly the equivalent of a 100 watt light bulb. The trouble is these small cylinders don’t last forever. After 4-5 nights for a lantern and a dozen or so meals on the camp stove they expire. Because they don’t run things forever you have to stock dozens of them and that’s very expensive today.

Fortunately, there are a number of companies that make refill adapters so we can refill these smaller cylinders repeatedly from larger cylinders like those used for your BBQ or an RV.

The process of refilling the 1 lb. cylinders is very simple, just do it outside in case of a propane fitting leak.


Here’s a photo of one of my 30 lb. RV propane tanks used for this demonstration.


Here’s the refilling adapter I used. They are durable and very simple. You can purchase one at, http://www.campingworld.com/shopping/item/Propane-Tank-Re-fill-Adaptor/55151/&?&affiliateid=3707 or many other outlets on the web.


I’m using a 32 oz. kitchen scale to show the weights before and after. In this photo is a totally empty cylinder now weighing 15 ounces. Notice the frost on the side of the tank. In order to completely fill the cylinder with 1 lb. of propane you must put the cylinder in your freezer for about 1 hour before refilling.


Here’s the small cylinder attached and filling from the large tank. Notice the large tank must be upside-down. Also the tank is resting on a couple scrap 4x4’s so I can easily get to the main valve to turn it on and off. The time it takes to fill one cylinder about 60 seconds. There’s no weighing involved or timing how much propane goes in. Just open the valve, after a few seconds the small cylinder is full, turn off the large cylinders valve and disconnect the small cylinder.


Here’s the cylinder after filling and as you can see it took just slightly more than 1 lb. of propane from the big tank for a total weight of just under 32 ounces, close enough for me. I just saved $3.00 and now have a full cylinder for my camp stove or lanterns.



Summary:
When you get your adapter follow precisely the directions supplied with it.

Refill cylinders outdoors. Any mishap of say a broken valve or dropping the large cylinder with the small one attached there is the possibility of a serious leak. All propane is under very high pressure, between 250 and 275 PSI.

Place the 1 lb. cylinders in the freezer for about an hour. The cold will allow filling the cylinder with 1 lb. of propane.

I have tried to fill room temperature cylinders but could only get 6-7 ounces in them. Although this will be fine if the grid is down and you don’t have an operating freezer, you’ll just have to refill more often.

Do not store propane cylinders in your garage or in your house.

Saturday, October 13, 2012

Survival Priorities

Survival Priorities
Knowing priorities in an emergency lets you start to work immediately and without confusion. Below are listed the logical steps you should take. Later, each item will be studied in detail.
  1. Positive Mental Attitude. As attested by those who have survived wilderness emergencies, a positive mental attitude may be the most essential element in survival.
  2. First Aid. If an injury is life threatening, such as rapid loss of blood, first aid becomes the most important thing to do.
  3. Shelter. Extreme weather conditions, too hot or too cold, make finding or building a shelter of top importance. At such times even painful but minor injuries must wait until shelter is available. This is even more urgent if night is approaching.
  4. Fire. Often, along with shelter, you will need a fire for warmth and signaling. Fuel should be secured and the fire started before dark.
  5. Signaling. When you have taken the first steps in dealing with the emergency, you will need to prepare rescue signals.
  6. Water. Under all circumstances, water is essential. You can live only a few days without it. Finding water is even more urgent when the weather is hot and dry.
  7. Food. A person can live several weeks without food; it does not rate high as a survival priority.
Preparing for the Wilderness Adventure
There are several basic items that always should be carried in your emergency kit, even though the trip may be only a short hike from the road to the lake:
Instant Body Shelter
If a sudden storm dumps rain or snow, you need to protect yourself from the dampness and cold immediately. Even in summer unexpected storms happen, especially in mountainous areas. A big heavy-duty plastic bag, the 7-bushel size, is one of the best instant shelters you can have. It takes up little space and weighs only a few ounces. When a storm breaks, get out of the wind, make a hole in the bag just large enough to get your face through, squat down and pull the bag completely down over you.
A plastic tube tent is another good instant shelter. Aluminum-coated emergency blankets or suits are available. Just be sure your head is covered, and there are no gaps to allow your body heat to escape. The combination of an emergency blanket and a plastic bag over it will protect the wearer from severe weather. Later, when conditions improve, more permanent shelter can be found or made.
Fire-Starting Materials
There are a number of choices of fire-starting materials. Waterproof, strike-anywhere matches; a butane lighter; a metal match and 0000 steel wool; flint and steel; a bow drill; a candle; chemical heat tabs; or small pieces of pitchy wood are helpful. An excellent combination for your basic kit would be a butane lighter and several heat tabs. Put them in a can such as small bandage strips are sold in, seal the lid with adhesive or electrical tape, and you have a fast, efficient fire starter system, even in damp weather.
Signaling Devices
Your fire is a signaling device. Others include a whistle, flares, distress flags, a mirror, flashlight, and dye markers for boating emergencies. At least, your basic kit should contain a whistle and mirror. For overnight trips you will have a flashlight in your camping equipment.
First Aid Kit
You can buy a small first aid kit, or working with your counselor, put together one of your own. In either case, know what each item is for and how to use it.
Carefully assembled, your emergency kit will be surprisingly compact and lightweight. It should be small enough to carry in your jacket pocket. For simple day hikes, a day hiker backpack is ideal. You can stow your emergency kit in it, and carry food and other items as well.

This Is A Good Read

Basic Patrolling Tactics

Basic Patrolling Tactics

By: Richard Oathkeeper Waite

Even on the modern high-tech world, patrols are vital - to gather intelligence, dominate ground, and destroy enemy forces.

The versatility of having good men on the ground must not be underestimated. All patrols, no matter what size or composition, will have a specific aim - usually falling into one of the following three categories:

To obtain information about the enemy and the ground....

* To dominate ground
* To destroy or disrupt enemy forces

The size, operating procedures and equipment carried by the patrol will be specific to the task.

Types of Patrol

There are many different types of patrol, but they all fall into one of the following classifications:

* Fighting
* Escort
* Recon
* Standing

Fighting patrols

Fighting patrols are the largest type of patrol, normally 16 men (two sections plus HQ). They are usually heavily armed so as to allow them to carry out their task. The type of tasks tackled by fighting patrols are wide ranging, but some examples are:

To carry out raids and capture prisoners; to prevent the enemy gathering intelligence or gaining the initiative by aggressive patrolling and ambushing; harassing or disrupting enemy work parties; anti-personnel and anti-armour ambushing.

Standby or quick-reaction patrols are another form of patrol, used for following up on contacts among other tasks.

Escort patrols

These are used to take in specialists who are able to do a task or action which cannot be carried out by normal troops. Size and composition vary depending on the tactical situation. This is the rarest form of patrol.

Recon patrols

Recon patrols normally consist of four men who use stealth and good drills to gain information on the enemy without his knowledge. Good communications are essential to allow rapid passage of 'hot int'. Equipment should be kept to a minimum to allow silent movement. The reduced weight also reduces fatigue, and so prolongs alertness.

Weapons should be small, light and potent, allowing the patrol the maximum firepower available - M203s and Claymores provide a useful edge. (If available) Improvises things like snap lines, (fireworks, legal in NH) work as a warning.

Some of a recon patrol's tasks could be:

* Locating enemy positions
* Obtaining details on enemy positions, obstacles and minefields
* Gaining information on enemy equipment, habits and movement
* Collecting information on the ground for updating maps
* Locating areas contaminated by nuclear or chemical weapons

Standing patrols

Standing patrols are usually as small as possible, typically 2-8 men, with 4 being the norm. They are used to provide warning of enemy approach or movement. Their tasks therefore include:

* Covering dead ground around defended positions
* Covering minefields and obstacles not covered by main positions
* Establishing long-term surveillance OPs

Standing patrols operate with stealth to avoid detection, but they must be armed well enough to give them a chance if compromised and forced into a firefight or a 'hot extraction'. Often LAWs or LSWs are the only extras available. Ideally, though, weapons such as M203 40mm grenade launchers and M18A1 Claymore mines should be carried. These increase small unit firepower substantially, and are good 'force multipliers'.

Due to their positions, standing patrols are ideal for controlling artillery and mortar fire. Good communications are obviously essential.

Tactics

Whichever type of patrol you are engaged in, there are a number of points to bear in mind for your own security and that of the patrol:

* Good personal discipline - maintain spacing and vigilance, observe arcs.
* Stick to drills - don't cut corners.
* Avoid leaving sign - anything that reveals your presence.
* Avoid telegraphing your presence - move with stealth.
* Don't use tracks - they are prone to ambush.
* Don't halt or move on topographical features - if they're easy to use, the enemy may use them too.
* Don't form routines - vary routes and techniques.
* Don't switch off - it could be the last thing you ever do.

Four-man patrols

Four-man patrols carrying out covert observation and reconnaissance deep behind enemy lines are the most demanding of all patrol tasks. Usually separated from quick or direct support, they rely on stealthy drills and skills of the highest order. Their strength lies in remaining covert - avoiding compromise by the use of well thought-out techniques. These patrols are normally associated with special forces. The duties within such a patrol could be as follows:

Lead scout

Normally armed with M203 or shotgun for aggressive reaction to 'contact front', he is the second most experienced patrol member, but must be rotated with the rear man so as to rest. Lead scout is a physically and mentally demanding position, especially in close country or jungle.
Lead scout's duties:

* To select the safest and easiest route along a line of travel
* Maintaining frequent visual checks with patrol commander
* Preparation of minor demolitions and booby traps as ordered
* Servicing of patrol demolition equipment
* Detecting enemy mines and booby traps on route

Patrol commander

The patrol commander is the most experienced member of the patrol, having done time in each patrol skill/appointment. He will, however, consult patrol members on operational matters, having a 'Chinese parliament', but his decision is final. Armed with rifle such as M16A2 or CAR15.
Patrol commander's duties:

* Conducting all tasks as ordered from above
* Welfare and admin of patrol
* Secondary signaller
* Navigator and pacer
* Thorough knowledge of all SOPs and drills

Signaller

The signaller is usually the newest patrol member - he gets the heaviest kit to carry! He will be familiar with all the comms used, and is the 'lifeline' to higher formations at bases etc. He must destroy all used codes etc. He carries a rifle, and possibly extra grenades to destroy signals kit if close to capture.

Signaller's duties:

* Operation, servicing and distribution of all patrol signals equipment
* Maintaining communications with higher formations
* Ensuring correct encoding and decoding of all messages, in conjunction with patrol commander
* Have full knowledge of report formats and procedures
* Security of all codes and crypto
* All patrol members must know location of codes for quick retrieval in emergency (ie signaller dead)
* Check pacer

Medic

The medic is expected to be able to sustain a trauma injury for at least 24 hours, as well as the day-to-day tasks of dispensing routine treatment such as plaudrine tablets to prevent malaria in the jungle, etc.
Medic's duties:

* Health of patrol
* Servicing of patrol medical pack
* Secondary lead scout
* Check navigator
* Carries GPMG or M249 if applicable

General duties

As well as the specific duties and equipment outlined above, patrol members are responsible for other items of patrol equipment such as Passive Night Vision Goggles, TACBE radios, etc.
The members are also expected to possess skills over and above the norm. For example, the signaller may be able to transmit and receive morse code at speeds of 12-18 words per minute, and the medic should be familiar with minor field surgery and dentistry techniques. Patrol members may also have knowledge of languages suitable for the theatre in which they are deployed - Spanish might be useful, for instance.


More Patrolling Fundamentals

The patrol order will be a briefing that includes all of the details and contingencies. It will provide the instructions that everyone needs to do their job. It will begin with the boarding of the helicopters/trucks/aircraft/submarine and end with the debriefing. You must include every conceivable contingency and allow time for training and rehearsals.

What do you do if you are discovered on the LZ upon insertion? If you will break your team into two elements for some reason, what are you going to do if one of the elements is discovered/captured/killed/ or for some reason doesn't return at the prearranged time?

If you are walking along and are ambushed what are you going to do? Break the patrol down into phases and spend a lot of time discussing each phase with your people. Identify all areas of concern and plan for them. You should rehearse everything as best you can. If you can locate an area to rehearse in that has similar terrain, practice moving into your ORP (Objective Rally Point)/Patrol Base at night. Make sure each person knows what sector he will be responsible for and can set up in the dark without talking. Rather than give a lengthy narrative on all of this, why don't we discuss some specific techniques and then go over the phases of a patrol and discuss how these techniques are integrated into the mission.

Much of these texts concern small clandestine patrols. Small clandestine patrols avoid contact with the enemy. They do not have the firepower to engage, and frequently operate beyond the range of rapid reinforcement. A large, powerful, and heavily armed combat patrol on a mission to seek out and destroy the enemy doesn't give a darn whether they make noise or not. They want the enemy to try and mess with them. They know that if the enemy does, they are going to kick some ass.

Vietnam was a war, not a movie. I don't doubt that with constant rotation of personnel, and a lot of young lieutenants, that some of the silly things you see in Vietnam-era War movies actually took place. Point is not a job for some green kid because he's more expendable. Point is the most important job in the patrol. I suppose if your patrol is undisciplined, noisy, high on drugs, listening to portable radios, and stumbling along through the jungle loaded down with comic books and all kinds of other crap there is [b]VERY GOOD CHANCE[/b] you are going to get ambushed. In the movies these patrols put cherries on point because they know they are going to get hit. This is the stupidest, most screwed up, irresponsible wad of worms I can think of. If you think you are doing anyone any good by running a unit in this manner you should be court martialled and tried for treason. You go on patrol for a lot of reasons, but you don't do it to kill off your own people. Your job is to give the enemy the best opportunity that you can to die for HIS country. It's not the other way around.

Other things you see in movies that would get you slapped for trying on a patrol:

* If the uniform include helmet, wearing it with the chinstrap unhooked and dangling. Cigarettes, LSA, Bug Juice, playing cards, or anything else stuck into the band.
* Decorating the camouflage cover of your helmet with peace signs, slogans, or anything else.
* Rolling your sleeves up for any reason.
* Wearing camouflage paint in some silly "war paint" design.
* Carrying your weapon on your shoulder.
* Sauntering along like you are on a nature hike.
* Not wearing camouflage at all times.
* Stumbling, falling, tripping, making noise of any kind.
* Dropping anything on the ground.

It should be noted that if I found you in possession of unauthorized items mentioned above (cigarettes, playing cards, and comic books) the punishment would be most severe. This is because the only way you could have gotten them would have been to sneak back and get them after the APL inspected you and your gear. If the APL let you bring any of the items he would probably be relieved immediately and charged with dereliction of duty.

Phase of Patrol (Modified for our sample warning order)

* Planning & Preparation
* Insertion
* Movement to the Objective
* Reconnaissance
* Setup our 'hides' and shoot people
* Movement to the LZ
* Extraction
* Debriefing

Fundamental Concepts

Movement

When moving at night you will be very close to each other. 'Ranger Eyes' are sewn onto the back of your cap. These are two small strips of luminescent tape. In very dark places (like in a triple canopy jungle) you may have to hold onto the man in front of you. The worst sin a man can commit (along with coughing, sneezing, and stumbling) is to break contact with the man in front of him. DON'T DO THIS. People who are wont to break contact have no place on a patrol. Movement formation should be such that the PL can control all of the patrol elements. Remember that you must be able to control teams in a variety of emergency situations. If you are strung out to far, your patrol can be cut in half by an ambush. If you are too close to each other, one mortar or artillery round can kill you all. You should organize your little patrol into a point element, headquarters, and rear security. (This is only for our small sniping mission) Patrols are usually organized according to the mission. While moving, people are organized into 'maneuver elements' and each has a team leader. In battle, the patrol leader will maneuver these teams against the enemy.

Point Element

While moving your patrol should have a point element. A point element is composed of a Point man and a slack man. Their mission is to provide security, NOT to navigate. The point team should not stray too far ahead. The PL must be able to control their direction and see them at all times. The point team must be very alert for booby traps, ambushes, and enemy patrols, positions, etc. The point man walks in front and the slack man moves behind him about 20 meters depending on terrain and vegetation. The slack man must watch the point man in his peripheral vision. When the point-man looks to the right, the slack man 'takes up the slack' by looking to the left. They must work together to provide constant 270 degree surveillance and check back to the patrol to get guidance on direction. If the point team does not keep an eye on the patrol, and the patrol stops for any reason, they will break contact. The point team is the patrols primary defense against ambush. They must be able to spot an ambush before the patrol gets within the kill zone. They will communicate by hand and arm signals. At night, or in dense vegetation, or rocky terrain, the point team will close up to the patrol. Tired men have a habit of looking at the ground in front of them. It is difficult to concentrate for long periods of time in a high-pressure situation like point. The point team should not be in place for longer than one hour. 30 minutes is a better time period. That way your point team will always be alert. If your patrol is not large enough to rotate the point, or you have other reasons, make sure that your point team is a good one.

Headquarters Element

Your HQ element will be the Patrol Leader (PL), APL, and RTO (Radio Telephone Operator). If you were taking a medic, the medic would be part of the HQ element. For movement purposes the APL will be at the rear of the patrol. He will watch for litter, broken branches, tracks, and pull rear security. In a small patrol you may want to alternate the position of RTO so that each man can have a respite from point. It really depends on how well each person can operate the radio. Assuming everyone can operate the radio with a high degree of competence it is OK to do this, if not you may have to use a dedicated point team. You will have to make the decision, it is important to have a competent radio operator at all times. It is also important to have an alert point team at all times. Remember this, combat success is measured by the degree your unit can move, shoot, and communicate. Without communication, both within your patrol, and with field artillery and air support, you are dead in combat. A patrol leader must be able to maneuver his men, talk to HQ, fire support, and display leadership, all under a hail of bullets and other weapons. A good RTO must be able to encode and transmit messages fast. Once you are in contact with the enemy, the enemy knows where you are; it is acceptable to talk in the clear. This means it is no longer necessary to encrypt messages when time is of the essence. If you are in danger of being overrun you cannot waste time encoding. The "gun bunnies" love this stuff. When they hear you under fire and the urgency in your voice, they really earn their pay. They will load and fire like their lives depend on it. Every man in your patrol must be able to call for fire, quickly, and accurately. Part of your patrol order should cover fire missions.

Sniping Element

If you and the APL are snipers then you are also the sniping element. You will not be sniping during the movement phase, so it is acceptable to perform other jobs during this phase of the patrol. It is no different from any other special purpose team, demolitions, snatch, POW search and handling, river crossing, all must perform security and be ready to fire and maneuver in contact with the enemy.

All weapons must be kept on safe. Everyone will keep his finger on the selector switch. Since you will be behind enemy lines, and outnumbered by virtually any enemy unit in the area, you must not have an accidental discharge. You must hide and or run from anyone we meet if at all possible. The moment anyone fires an M16 or .308 you are compromised. This danger can be minimized somewhat by using sound suppressors. Would it make sense for everyone except snipers to carry enemy weapons? Could we get resupply if necessary? What are the chances of being re-supplied instead of extracted? Is everyone trained and competent with enemy weapons? Are sound suppressors available for the weapon you want to carry? Sound suppressors are essential pieces of equipment for all weapons.

Familiarity is one thing and competence is another. How you will perform with the equipment when suddenly ambushed, pinned down, or in a serious firefight is quite another. Dime store novels have commandos carrying all sorts of exotic weapons.

I'm saying that you are better off carrying the standard weapons everyone regularly carries. If everyone is competent with foreign weapons you may consider it. Remember that you don't want to fire your weapons, and resupply will be difficult if you are carrying non-standard items. The fact that the area is crawling with the enemy cannot be overlooked. The odds of a shoot-out at some point are likely and you want to survive it first, and then escape. If you can survive the fight with enemy weapons and you are sure of it, then your odds of escape are somewhat enhanced. Everyone within earshot will have heard their own weapons being fired, they will know their comrades are shooting at something, but won't know what.

This uncertainty can work in your favor. If the troops guarding the rear area are not seasoned combat soldiers, i.e., MPs, or other green troops, they will be more likely to wonder what the ruckus is about and wait for someone to tell them what to do. They will know that certain weapons sounds don't sound like theirs, even if they don't immediately recognize the source. If they don't hear strange weapons, they may think someone is qualifying or practicing! Notice I'm using a lot of 'less likely', 'apt to', 'odds are" 's. You must consider these things and make your decisions, there are no guarantees. What will happen may be something else entirely.

Weapons always follow your eyes. As you scan an area to your flank, your weapon's muzzle follows. It should always be pointed wherever you are looking.

Each man in the patrol has a sector to watch as you move. Stagger this so that you alternate from right to left. One man looks right, the man behind him looks left, and so on all the way back through the patrol.

All of your men should be able to qualify right & left handed with their weapons.

The basic indivisible unit is a 2-man buddy system. You should never leave a man alone for any reason. You will not be forgiven for a tragedy befalling someone under your command when it could have been avoided.

You should not use radios unless absolutely necessary. The enemy can determine where you are transmitting from and they will fire upon your location. You should work out a system of squelch breaks to communicate. When you separate for recon purposes, each team should have a small, low-power radio.

PATROL TIPS


1. PLANNING AND PREPARATION FOR A PATROL:

a. a detailed map study should be made; the route mentioned and terrain features selected for orientation;

b. the use of difficult terrain must be considered in route planning. Impassable terrain is very rare;

c. an "offset" in the route should be planned when applicable. An offset is a planned magnetic deviation to the right or left of the straight line to an objective. It should be used to verify the location right or left of the objective. Each mil offset will move a person one meter to the right or left for each 1000 meters traveled;

d. when the patrol is to infiltrate the enemy area, an alternate rendezvous must be selected;

e. taking weapons requiring different types of ammunition must be avoided as much as possible;

f. all weapons must be cleaned, checked, and test fired before departure. The weapon must not be cleaned after test firing. Individual weapon cleaning equipment should be carried on all patrols;

g. gloves should be carried to protect the hands;

h. at least two flashlights and two each of such critical items as binoculars, wire cutters and fuse crimpers must be carried;

i. Ponchos can be used to make litters, construct rafts, conceal lights, and as shelters. Also each man should carry two canteens on long patrols;

j. every man should carry an extra pair of socks;

k. a length of rope can be used for binding prisoners, climbing or descending obstacles and crossing streams;

l. friction tape can be used to secure rifle swivels, slings, and other items which might rattle. It should be used also to tie back loose clothing;

m. camouflage the back of the neck, behind the ears, and back of the hand;

n. a sharp knife should be carried;

o. security must be provided by assigning every man an area of responsibility;

p. at least two pacers should be detailed and the average of their individual counts should be used;

q. maps must be folded before departing so they can be more easily handled when checking. Maps must not be marked;

r. compasses should be preset before departing. More than one should be preset for each setting required;

s. a list of questions to be used at friendly positions with which the patrol will coordinate should be prepared;

t. leaders should be taken on reconnaissance;

u. all signals to be used should be simple, prearranged and rehearsed;

v. time for the patrol members to obtain their night vision must be planned (45 minutes);

w. available visual aids should be used in issuing the patrol commander's order. The use of a blanket, board, blackboard, or a sketch on the ground is helpful;

x. the patrol should be inspected carefully before rehearsals and before departure. Men should be questioned to check their knowledge and understanding of the actions planned;

aa. all human habitation should be avoided;

bb. plans to utilize ridge lines for movement in mountainous terrain should be made whenever possible. The skyline should be avoided;

cc. a garrote can be used for killing a sentry or capturing a prisoner. An insulated wire should be used if the prisoner is to be captured;

dd. luminous tape, worn on the back of the collar, greatly aids in control and movement on dark nights. The collar should be turned down if close to enemy;

ee. using the password forward of friendly positions should be avoided;

ff. radio communications should be checked before departing;

gg. a weapons sight should be carried;

ii. binoculars increase visibility at night;

jj. the desire for personal comforts should not be allowed to endanger the patrol and the accomplishment of the mission; and

kk. it is too late to consider planning and preparation when the patrol is in no man's land.

2. DURING THE PATROL:

a. on small patrols, the count should be sent up automatically after each halt or passage of a danger area. In large patrols, a chain of command should be used to account for men;

b. navigation should be checked frequently. The patrol commander is responsible;

c. on long patrols, the point and compass men should be changed occasionally;

d. weapons are always carried at a ready position. The patrol must be able to return fire instantly;

e. enemy wire should be cut only when necessary. A reconnaissance should be made first;

f. take advantage of any noises such as wind, vehicles, planes, battle sounds and even sound caused by insects;

g. there should be no movement on roads and trails unless absolutely necessary;

h. movement can be aided in daylight, especially in dense terrain, by using night compass settings;

i. do not move across the enemy's front;

j. over short distances such as the width of a road, the compass can be used for signalling at night. a piece of luminous tape can also be used;

k. crossing roads in enemy territory is a matter of common sense. Each situation may dictate a different method. Established procedure will not be violated if a proper reconnaissance is conducted before crossing an obstacle. Adequate security should be established and movement should be silent and quick to avoid. detection. A main point of consideration in any road crossing is control of the patrol. Crosses should be tried at a curve. Some of the accepted methods for crossing roads are:

(1) patrol can form a skirmish line and move quickly and quietly across the road,
(2) the entire patrol can form a file, following the footsteps of the men in front in order to minimize footprints, and
(3) men cross the road a few at a time until patrol is across.
l. when necessary to leave a wounded man to be picked up on the return trip, another man should be left with him. Walking wounded can return on their own to friendly areas. When the enemy is near, the wounded should be removed from the immediate area before applying first aid;

m. enemy positions or obstacles should be by-passed by offsetting;

n. the patrol's location should be known at all times. This is particularly important when there is a change of direction or the patrol is transported by air or water. A relatively slight error can cause a missed objective;

o. security must not be jeopardized by letting ear flaps and hoods interfere with the hearing ability of the patrol;

p. talking should be kept to a minimum. Arm and hand signals should be used to the maximum;

q. when enemy positions are being reconnoitered, a covering force must be kept within supporting distance of the reconnaissance element;

r. trash must never be thrown on the ground while on patrol. It should be buried and camouflaged to prevent detection by the enemy;

s. when friendly agents such as partisans are contacted, the entire patrol must not be taken to make contact with them. One man should make the contact and he should be covered;

t. a unique and disposable patrol password should be used forward of friendly positions;

u. at halts and during movement, odd numbered men observe to the left, and even numbered men to the right;

v. when men have difficulty staying awake on security and at halts, the number of halts should be minimized, and the men should assume a kneeling rather than prone position;

w. men should be allowed to sleep on long patrols when possible, but proper security should be maintained;

x. to aid in navigation stars should be used but it should be remembered that they move. The patrol's location should be confirmed on a compass;

aa. smoking must not be permitted;

bb. the method of finding the North Star must be known and also the watch and sun method of finding North; and

cc. during halts the communicator should position himself to the left of the patrol commander in order that the handset can be held in the patrol commander's left hand.